Children of South Asia, who form about a quarter of the world's total number of children, have been the subject of several scholarly studies and policy formulations. However, there is a pervasive tendency in contemporary literature on children to treat them as a homogenous category, decontextualized and isolated from their cultures, locales and livelihoods. Fragmentary studies, dealing with the universal child and focusing on specific issues such as child labour, child rights, and education, construct the predominant perspective on children and childhoods today. There is, therefore, a need for a realistic and situated mapping of childhoods and Childhoods in South Asia focuses on extensive ethnographic examination of the lived experiences of children in the political, cultural and economic contexts of the countries in South Asia. It presents ethnographic studies of childhood experiences from different regions across South Asia. The studies include issues such as the impact of new market opportunities on the gender identity and social-status constructs of children in a village in the Himalayas; a psycho-social and politico-economic exploration of the making of female child soldiers in the LTTE in Sri Lanka among other cases.