Basic Approach/Summary For preservice and inservice teachers studying the historical and philosophical foundations of education. An anthology of primary sources that explores the philosophy of teaching and learning through a wide variety of viewpoints throughout history. The introduction to the fourth edition of Philosophical Documents in Education asks the simple question, what does it mean to be educated? That simple but profound inquiry is answered throughout the anthology’s 16 chapters by both classical and contemporary educators, progressives, and philosophers. Driven by the idea that students can better understand and practice their profession by reading, contemplating, and discussing philosophical and historical literature, this collection of primary sources exposes readers to a wealth of ideas regarding teaching, learning, schooling, and instruction — from ancient texts to modern selections.